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On the back of your residence permit it says in Dutch ‘Tewerkstellingsvergunning (TWV) vereist voor arbeid van bijkomende aard, andere arbeid in loondienst niet toegestaan‘.
This means the following:
You may only work in paid employment if your employer has obtained a TWV (work permit) for you. You are then allowed to work:
Please note! If you work for more hours than allowed or if your employer was not issued a TWV for you, then you are (unintentionally) working illegally. This is being monitored by the SZW Inspectorate. In case of an infringement, the IND will contact the educational institute where you are studying. The Inspectorate will then fine the employer for illegal employment.
Luckily, as a Non-EU student studying in a Dutch university, the employer does not have to prove that they have searched in the NL and in the EU first before offering the job to you, as they would normally have to do (see this link in English). Therefore, employers can apply directly for a TWV. However, the legal decision time for a TWV is five weeks so take this into consideration when making your work plans. You may not begin working until the TWV is issued.
Next to your study at a Dutch university, you are allowed to work in the Netherlands as a self-employed person (without a TWV). It is important that you continue to meet the requirements for your residence permit for study. You can read more about how to set up your business as a self-employed person at this link.
If you are going to do an internship in the Netherlands, you do not need a TWV. You and your educational institution must have signed an internship agreement with the company where you will do your internship (see this link).
If you have a paid internship, you will have tax and social security contributions deducted from your salary and you will have to take out Dutch health insurance. If you will only be compensated for travel expenses, then neither of the preceding is required.
If you wish to do an internship in the Netherlands, there are different conditions than for students studying at a Dutch university (see this link).
If your internship will be shorter than 90 days, your employer will need to apply to the UWV for a TWV for you (see this link).
If your internship will be longer than 90 days, then your employer will also need to apply for a residence permit for you. This can be done using one application to the IND (GVVA) for a combination residence permit and work permit (see this link). The IND will ask for advice on the work permit portion from the UWV directly. The decision time for the GVVA is 90 days.
One exception to requiring a TWV is if the student is working within the framework of a European Union action program (for example, ErasmusPlus). In this case, if the internship is longer than 90 days, the employer should submit a different residence permit application form to the IND (see this link). The income requirement (see following paragraph) can be composed of the internship salary plus scholarship from the EU action program.
No matter how long you will be in the Netherlands for your internship, your salary will need to be at least 50% of the minimum wage for a 22 year old person. You will have tax and social security contributions deducted from your salary and you will have to take out Dutch health insurance (see conditions described here and Article 8, paragraph 30 here).